Why weren’t there female prophets ? Answer: ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Shaykh Umar al-Ashqar answers this question in his book “The Messengers and the Messages in the Light of the Qur’an and Sunnah” (p. 127-128 [International Islamic Publishing House]):
Another aspect of the perfection that Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ و ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ granted is that He chose all the Messengers whom He sent from among men. Allah did not send any Messenger from among women. This exclusivity is indicated by the aayah (verse):
And We sent not before you [O' Muhammad] but men to whom We revealed... (Qur'an 21:7)
The reason why the Messengers were men
The Messengers were men and not women for reasons which were dictated by the nature of their task. For example:
1) The role of Messenger requires a great many tasks to be performed: addressing men and women, meeting people in secret and openly, moving throughout the land, confronting liars and establishing proof against them and debating with them, preparing and leading armies, and going through the sufferings of war. All of that is suitable for men but not for women.
2) The role of Messenger demands that the Messengers should be in charge of those who follow him, so he issues commands and prohibitions to his followers, and he rules and judges among them. If a woman were entrusted with such tasks, she would not be able to do them properly, and there would be people who would refuse to follow and obey her. 3) Masculinity is more perfect, as we have explained above. Hence Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ و ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ has given the role of responsibility to men over women: Men are the protectors and maintainers of women... (Qur'an 4:34) And the Messenger ﷺ said that women are lacking in reason and religious commitment. (Note- in my humble opinion, a more accurate translation than the phrase “religious commitment” [as used by the translator] would be “religious obligations” since a woman is excused from praying and fasting during her menses, just how it is mentioned in the Hadith) 4) Women have to cope with things that prevent them from doing many tasks, such as menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and nifaas [postnatal bleeding (bleeding following childbirth)], which is accompanied by psychological stresses and pains, in addition to the care that is required by the child. All of that prevents her from being able to fulfil the role of Messenger and carrying out its duties. Only Allah knows best Written by Maulana Mohammad Ahsan Osmani Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah Darul Ifta Birmingham