What is the masnoon method for giving azan ?
What is the masnoon method for giving azan (e.g touching ears— one or both, sometimes one hand and sometimes both, giving Azan inside the masjid or outside, and looking right and left while saying ﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺼﻼة ﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﻼح Any references from ahadith and from the lives of the Sahabah will be greatly appreciated, and if there are any differences of opinion amongst the scholars, please mention those as well. Answer: ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Azan—The Call to Salah 1. The azan for any salah must be called out in the time of that salah. If it is given before the commencement of the time, it will not be valid. When the time enters, the azan will have to be repeated irrespective of whether it was for Fajr salah or for any other salah. 2. The azan and iqamah have to be in Arabic and in exactly the same words as conveyed to us from the Prophet (SAW). If the azan is given in any other language, or in Arabic but in different words then this will not be valid even if, upon hearing it, people understand it as azan and its purpose is fulfilled (i.e. even if people respond to it by coming to offer their salah). 3. It is necessary for the muezzin to be a male. The azan of a female is not proper. If a woman gives azan, it should be repeated. If salah is offered without it being repeated, it will be as if salah was offered without any azan. 4. It is necessary that the mu'azzin be of sound intellect. If a child who has not reached the age of understanding, a lunatic or an intoxicated person gives azan; it will not be considered. 5. The sunnah method of calling it out is that the person calling out azan should be pure from the major and minor impurities. He should go to an elevated place away from the mosque, face the qiblah, insert his forefingers into both his ears, and say the following words as loud as possible without overstraining himself: Allahu Akbar four times, Ash hadu an la ilaha illa Allah twice, Ash hadu anna Muhammadar Rasulullah twice, Hayya alas salah twice, Hayya alal falah twice, Allahu Akbar twice again, and La ilaha illa Allahu once. When saying Hayya alas salah, he should turn his face towards the right in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah. When saying Hayya alal falah, he should turn his face towards the left in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah. (Note: first turn the head then say Hayya alas salah/Hayya alal falah, not whilst turning) In the Fajr azan, after saying Hayya alal falah, he should add the words as-Salatu khayrum minan naum two times. The total phrases of azan are therefore fifteen while there are seventeen words for the azan of Fajr.
The words of the azan should not be uttered in a singing tune, nor should they be uttered in such a way that some of the words are said loudly while softly After saying Allahu Akbar twice, he should wait to the extent that the person who is listening to the azan can reply to it. Apart from Allahu Akbar, even for the other words, he should wait for a similar period before continuing with the next words 6. The method of iqamah is also the same. The difference is that it is preferable to call out the azan outside the mosque, while the iqamah is called out inside. Azan is called out in a loud voice while iqamah is called out in a comparatively softer voice. In iqamah one does not say as-salatu khai-run minan naum. Instead, for all the five salah one has to say Qad qamatis salah two times. When calling out the iqamah one does not have to insert one's fore-fingers into one's ears. The reason for inserting the fingers into the ears is to raise the voice, and this is not necessary when saying the iqamah. In the iqamah, it is not necessary to turn right and left when saying Hayya alas-salah and Hayya alal falah. However, some jurists are in favour of this. (Bahishti Zewar: p. 114-115 [DARUL-ISHAAT]) It is Sunnah to place a saakin at the end of every sentence in the azan and iqamah. To place a diacritical mark (harakah) is against the Sunnah, e.g. placing a dhamma on the ‘raa’ when say Allahu Akbar. However, it is permissible to place a fatha on the ‘raa’ of the first Allahu Akbar and join it to the second intending sukoon. (Raddul Muhtar: v. 2, p. 52 [Maktaba Imdadia]; Etiquettes of Azaan & Iqamaat: p. 59-60 [Zam Zam Publishers]) Regarding inserting the fingers in the ears, this is mustahab (preferred).
َوَﻗﺎ َل " إِﱠﻧ ُﻪ أَ ْرَﻓ ُﻊ ﻟِ َﺼ ْﻮﺗِ َﻚ " َر ُﺳﻮ َل ا ﱠﷲِ ـ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﯿﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ـ أَ َﻣ َﺮ ﺑِ َﻼ ًﻻ أَ ْن ﯾَ ْﺠ َﻌ َﻞ إِ ْﺻﺒَ َﻌﯿْ ِﻪ ِﻓﻲ أُُذﻧَﯿْ ِﻪ أَ ﱠن
Translation: The Prophet (SAW) commanded Bilal (R.A.) to insert his fingers in his ears (when giving azan) and said, “This will make your voice louder.” However, he may also place both of his hands over his ears as well. It is narrated that Abu Mahzura (R.A.) would join his four fingers and place them on his ears. Likewise, he may also place one hand over one ear. Covering one’s ears is a means of attaining a louder voice when calling out the azan, hence, when using a microphone, there is no need to cover one’s ears because the microphone fulfills that purpose. (Raddul Muhtar: v. 2, p. 54 [Maktaba Imdadia]) The purpose of the azan is to call the people towards the prayer. Therefore, in Muslim-majority countries or regions where a lot of Muslims live, the correct manner of giving the azan would be to ensure that the people of the locality hear the voice of the muazzin so that they may know that it is time for prayer. The Sunnah method is to ascend a high place, that would make it easy for the neighbors to hear, and call out the azan. Nevertheless, this goal can also be achieved via the PA system regardless of whether the muazzin stands inside or outside of the masjid. ]ﻋﻦ اﻣﺮأة ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻲ اﻟﻨﺠﺎر[: ﻛﺎن ﺑﯿﺘﻲ أﻃﻮ َل ﺑﯿ ٍﺖ ﺣﻮ َل اﻟﻤﺴﺠ ِﺪ، ﻓﻜﺎن ﺑﻼ ٌل ﯾُ َﺆﱢذ ُن ﻋﻠﯿ ِﻪ اﻟﻔﺠ َﺮ أﺧﺮﺟﻪ أﺑﻮ داود )٩١٥(، واﻟﺒﯿﻬﻘﻲ )٧٧٠٢( Translation: A woman from Banu Najjar reported, “My house was the highest house around the masjid, hence Bilal (R.A.) would call the azan of Fajr upon it.” The above-mentioned ruling is regarding a muazzin of a locality (i.e., he is informing the people in the locality that it is time for prayer). If a person is calling out the azan to inform the people already present in the masjid (e.g. in such a country where Muslims are a minority and they do not reside close to the masjid or work in its vicinity), then it would be permissible to give the azan inside of the masjid and there would be no need to ascend a high place or go outside. (Raddul Muhtar: v. 2, p. 48 [Maktaba Imdadia]; Fatawa Darul Uloom Zakariya: v. 2, p. 95-98 [Zamzam]) However, it would be more virtuous if a person could call out the azan in such a way that both the people inside and outside of the masjid could hear irrespective of whether Muslims are close by or not.
َﺧﻤ ٌﺲ و ِﻋﺸﺮو َن َرﻃ ٍﺐ وﯾﺎﺑِ ٍﺲ، وﺷﺎ ِﻫُﺪ اﻟ ﱠﺼﻼِة ﯾُﻜﺘَ ُﺐ ﻟﻪ َﺻﻮﺗِﻪ، وﯾَﺸ َﻬُﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻛ ﱡﻞ َﻣﺪى ]ﻋﻦ أﺑﻲ ﻫﺮﯾﺮة[: اﻟ ُﻤﺆﱢذ ُن ﯾُﻐَﻔ ُﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻼًة، وﯾُ َﻜﱠﻔ ُﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑَﯿﻨَﻬﻤﺎ. أﺧﺮﺟﻪ أﺑﻮ داود )٥١٥( واﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ، واﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )٤٢٧(، وأﺣﻤﺪ )٧١٣٩(، واﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )٥٤٦( ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼف ﯾﺴﯿﺮ. Translation: The Muazzin will be forgiven to the extent where his voice reaches, and every moist and dry place will bear witness for him…
Regarding turning the head in the azan, it is mentioned in a Hadith: ﻓﺄذن، ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ: ﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺼﻼة، ﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﻼح. ﻟﻮى ﻋﻨﻘﻪ ﯾﻤﯿﻨﺎ وﺷﻤﺎﻻ وﻟﻢ ﯾﺴﺘﺪر أﺧﺮﺟﻪ أﺑﻮ داود )٠٢٥( Translation: When he (Bilal [R.A.]) reached hayya alas salah/hayya alal falah, he turned his neck right and left, and he did not turn his body. The wording of the Azan, as mentioned above, is the same according to the three Imams of the four schools of thought, however, according to Imam Malik (R.A.), Allahu Akbar is said twice in the beginning, not four times. In addition, according to the Malikis and Shafis, one should do tarjee in the azan, i.e., recite the Shahaadatayn first softly then recite it loudly. (Kitabul Fiqh ala Al-Madhaib Al-Arba’ah: v. 1, p. 282-283 [DKI]) Only Allah knows best Written by Maulana Mohammad Ahsan Osmani Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
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