Statement of Kufr
ًWhat is the ruling of a person who says about a non-believer “ﻋﻨﻪ اﷲ رﺿﻲ” (may Allah be pleased with him)? Does he become a non-believer also?
Answer: ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful If a Muslim utters a problematic statement that could possibly be interpreted as a statement of disbelief, however, simultaneously it could also mean something that does not entail disbelief, then we should assume good about our Muslim brother and lean towards the interpretation which does not entail disbelief. )و( اﻋﻠﻢ أﻧﻪ )ﻻ ﯾﻔﺘﻰ ﺑﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ أﻣﻜﻦ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﻤﻞ ﺣﺴﻦ أو ﻛﺎن ﻓﻲ ﻛﻔﺮه ﺧﻼف، وﻟﻮ( ﻛﺎن ذﻟﻚ )رواﯾﺔ ﺿﻌﯿﻔﺔ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺮره ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ، وﻋﺰاه ﻓﻲ اﻷﺷﺒﺎه إﻟﻰ اﻟﺼﻐﺮى. وﻓﻲ اﻟﺪرر وﻏﯿﺮﻫﺎ: إذا ﻛﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ وﺟﻮه ﺗﻮﺟﺐ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ وواﺣﺪ ﯾﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﻲ اﻟﻤﯿﻞ ﻟﻤﺎ ﯾﻤﻨﻌﻪ، ﺛﻢ ﻟﻮ ﻧﯿﺘﻪ ذﻟﻚ ﻓﻤﺴﻠﻢ وإﻻ ﻟﻢ ﯾﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ، وﯾﻨﺒﻐﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﻮذ ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺪﻋﺎء ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ وﻣﺴﺎء ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ اﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﺼﺎدق اﻷﻣﯿﻦ - ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﯿﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ - »اﻟﻠﻬﻢ إﻧﻲ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﻚ ﻣﻦ أن أﺷﺮك ﺑﻚ ﺷﯿﺌﺎ وأﻧﺎ أﻋﻠﻢ، وأﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮك ﻟﻤﺎ ﻻ أﻋﻠﻢ إﻧﻚ أﻧﺖ ﻋﻼم اﻟﻐﯿﻮب« . Raddul Muhtar: v. 4, p. 229-230 (Darul Fikr-Beirut) Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ says: َﻣﺎ َﻛﺎ َن ﻟِﻠﱠﻨﺒِ ﱢﻲ َواﱠﻟ ِﺬﯾ َﻦ آ َﻣﻨُﻮا أَن ﯾَ ْﺴﺘَ ْﻐِﻔ ُﺮوا ﻟِﻠْ ُﻤ ْﺸ ِﺮ ِﻛﯿ َﻦ َوﻟَ ْﻮ َﻛﺎﻧُﻮا أُوﻟِﻲ ُﻗ ْﺮﺑَﻰٰ ِﻣﻦ ﺑَ ْﻌ ِﺪ َﻣﺎ ﺗَﺒَﱠﯿ َﻦ ﻟَ ُﻬ ْﻢ أَﱠﻧ ُﻬ ْﻢ أَ ْﺻ َﺤﺎ ُب اﻟْ َﺠ ِﺤﯿ ِﻢ (Surah Al-Tawba: Ayat 113); translation: “It is not for the Prophet and the believers to seek forgiveness for the polytheists, even though they may be relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the people of the hellfire.” In addition, it is mentioned in another ayat: َﺮ ْﻔ ُﻜ اﻟْ ِدِه ِﻌﺒَﺎ ﻟِ َﺿٰﻰ ْﺮ ﯾَ َوَﻻ (Surah Az-Zumar: Ayat 7); translation: “And He is not pleased for His slaves to disbelieve.” Hence, in order to attain the pleasure and forgiveness of Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ, one must believe. Based on the above-mentioned ayats, one should refrain from making the dua in reference for a non-believer. Nevertheless, if a non-believer is still alive, a Muslim can make dua to Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ for his guidance and well-being.
In conclusion, we will not issue a verdict of disbelief because there is scope for interpretation. What constitutes disbelief is being pleased with disbelief ﻛﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ اﻟﺮﺿﻰ (Al-Jam’i fi Alfaaz Al-Kufr: p. 107 [Dar Eelaaf Al-Dawlia li Al-Nashr wa Al-Tawzee’]), however, we cannot ascertain that he intended that, therefore we will judge based upon what is obvious to us. Whatever intention he had in his heart is between him and Allah ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ.
Only Allah knows best
Written by Maulana Mohammad Ahsan Osmani Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham